Skip to contents

Randomization of presence/absence species distribution raster data for calculating standardized effect sizes and testing null hypothesis. The randomization algorithms are based on classical algorithms for matrices (Gotelli 2000, doi:10.2307/177478) implemented for raster data.


To install the package, run:


The development version can be installed from the Github repository:

install_github("HemingNM/SESraster", build_vignettes = TRUE)

SESraster basics

Basic information about the package can be found below, at the package’s webpage, or in the vignettes browseVignettes("SESraster")

  • Null model algorithms

    vignette("null-models"): For an overview of the null model algorithms for species co-occurrence analysis summarized in (Gotelli 2000, doi:10.2307/177478).

  • Spatial null model algorithms in SESraster

    vignette("spatial-null-models"): Get started with SESraster. See installation instructions and how the implemented null model algorithms work with spatial data.

  • Standardized effect sizes

    vignette("SES"): For computing standardized effect sizes (SES) using the implemented null model algorithms.


  • If you use this R package, please cite in your publications:

Heming N. M., Mota F. M. M., Alves-Ferreira G. (2023). SESraster: Raster Randomization for Null Hypothesis Testing. R package version 0.7.0,

  • For more information:


If you have any question or find any bug, let us know through the topic “Issues”.